PENGELOLAAN HAMA SECARA HAYATI

Konsep PHT muncul akibat kesadaran tentang bahaya pestisida sintetis sebagai bahan pengendali hama yang digunakan secara tidak terkontrol sehingga mengakibatkan efek samping negative terhadap lingkungan dan kesehatan manusia. Penggunaan pestisida yang tidak terukur dan tidak bijaksana tersebut menimbulkan resistensi/ ketahanan hama terhadap insektisida, timbulnya resurgensi/ peningkatan populasi hama, letusan hama kedua, pencemaran lingkungan, serta meningkatnya biaya pengendalian hama.

Mulanya, konsep PHT hanya mengikutsertakan dua metode atau teknik pengendalian, kemudian dikembangkan dengan memadukan semua metode pengendalian hama yang dikenal, termasuk di dalamnya pengendalian secara fisik, pengendalian mekanik, pengendalian secara bercocoktanam, pengendalian dengan tanaman tahan, pengendalian hayati dan pengendalian kimiawi. Pengendalian Hama Terpadu (PHT) dapat diartikan sebagai pengendalian hama yang memadukan semua teknik atau metode pengendalian hama sedemikian rupa sehingga populasi hama dapat tetap berada di bawah ambang ekonomi. Dalam penerapannya,, PHT harus memperhitungkan dampaknya, baik yang bersifat ekologis, ekonomis, dan sosiologis sehingga secara keseluruhan dapat diperoleh hasil yang terbaik (Untung, Kasumbogo, 2001). Berdasarkan hal tersebut, maka tulisan ini dimaksudkan untuk membahas mengenai pengelolaan hama secara hayati sebagai salah satu komponen PHT, sehingga dapat menambah informasi dan perhatian stakeholder pertanian terhadap pemanfaatan dan pengembangan agensia pengendali hayati (Awaluddin).

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