PENGENDALIAN HAMA BURUNG

Balai Besar Pelatihan Pertanian Batangkaluku (BBPP) merupakan salah satu UPT Badan Penyuluhan dan Pengembangan Sumberdaya Manusia Pertanian berperan penting dalam meningkatkan kapasitas sumberdaya manusia pertanian melalui pelatihan. Untuk menunjang pelatihan, BBPP Batangkaluku memiliki sawah percontohan yang digunakan dalam pembelajaran peserta diklat yang terdiri dari 4 petak kecil yang berada di dalam lahan perkantoran. 

Lahan sawah di BBPP Batangkaluku yang ditanami padi terkadang diserang hama, salah satunya hama burung. Dampak kerusakan yang diakibatkan hama burung bisa menyebabkan kehilangan hasil 15-50% atau bahkan gagal panen. Hama burung biasanya menyerang secara berkelompok yang berjumlah ribuan ekor, apabila tidak diusir atau dihalau, bulir padi dalam sepetak sawah bisa habis dalam beberapa hari.

Hama ini menyerang pada saat padi masak susu hingga menjelang panen. Hama burung memakan bulir padi, menyebabkan malai tidak ada bijinya. Berbagai spesies burung tercatat sebagai hama potensial pada pertanaman padi, diantaranya beberapa spesies burung pipit (Jawa : manuk emprit; Sunda : bondol) seperti Lonchura striata, L. maja, dan L. puntulata, burung gelatik (Padda oryzivora), burung derkuku (Jawa : manuk deruk) (Streptopelia orientalis), terkuku (Jawa : manuk puter) (S. striata) dan burung gereja (Passer montanus). Spesies burung yang paling sering menimbulkan kerugian serius adalah burung pipit (L. striata) yang biasanya menyerang secara berkelompok dari puluhan hingga ribuan jumlahnya. Puncak aktifitas harian burung hama padi adalah pagi dan sore hari.

Banyak jenis pengendalian yang bisa dipilih untuk menghalau hama burung, di BBPP Batangkaluku memilih menggunakan pengendalian dengan cara membentangkan jaring bekas yang dipasang di sawah dengan menancapkan beberapa bambu sebagai tiang di pematang sawah, kemudian mengikat jaring di bambu tersebut dan membetang. Cara ini bisa cukup efektif namun harganya relatif lebih mahal untuk digunakan di sawah yang berukuran luas dan pengendalian berikutnya menggunakan plastik mengkilap yang berukuran panjang yang dipasang di sawah. Plastik ini bermanfaat untuk memantulkan sinar matahari yang akan membuat silau hama burung sehingga mereka tidak mendekati padi yang sedang menguning.

 

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